October 7, 2007 at 4:23 pm #24764
Taoism and its Influence on the Arts of China
(originally presented by a Doctor Richard Kirby)
Much as Christianity has informed the development of the arts in the
West thematically as well as compositionally, Taoism, one of the key philosophical
systems to emerge out of China in the sixth or fifth century BCE, has left its stamp on Chinese art, literature and music. Leading translator of Asian spiritual literature, Thomas Cleary, pays tribute to the enormous impact of Taoist thought on the development of culture in China in the introduction to his translation of The Inner Teachings of Taoism by Chang Po-Tuan, in which he states that So pervasive has the influence of Taoism been that it is difficult to name a single facet of Chinese civilization that has not been touched by it in some way (211).
Before we can begin to explore the impact that this esoteric ancient wisdom has had on the classic arts of China, specifically landscape painting, poetry and music, however, it is necessary to attempt to define Taoism, a challenge to be sure when we consider one of the most recognizable of Taoist maxims found in the Tao Te Ching attributed to Lao Tzu:
The Tao that can be spoken of is not the eternal Tao.
Despite this caveat, there is an enormous body of specialist literature on Taoism
as scholars in the East and the West have attempted to explain the Tao and the system of thinking that arose out of a belief in it. Cleary discusses the difficulty of decoding such a literature (211) and Alan Watts, In Tao: The Watercourse Way, while attributing initial difficulties faced by those in the West to the problems of language and translation, also advises the student to approach it by both studying the literature and periodically departing from it; it is only when the mind is quiet that one can enter the flow of the Tao through nature for, as Watts sees it, Taoism is the way of mans cooperation with the 2 natural world whose principles we discover in the flow patterns of water, gas, and fire
(Preface xiv). This advice to approach Taoism through both study and practice is a good starting point for a brief analysis of the philosophy as it encapsulates the essential idea at the basis of Taoist thought, that of the yin-yang polarity and the interdependency of opposites.
To alternately engage in thought and the intellect, on the one hand, and
perception and behavior on the other, implies the balance and harmony of complements
that is at the core of any discussion of the Tao and which is known as the yin-yang.
That the idea of the yin-yang has expanded beyond the boundaries of its land of
origin to attain global importance is evident in the enormous popularity that its symbol has gained around the world. A perfect circle proscribed by the interlocking of balanced opposites, the yin-yang represents a cosmic whole wherein the parts are at once distinct and integrated and where each implies the other.
Traditionally the yin represents the negative pole and it stands for the feminine, yielding, weak, dark, falling and earth, while yang, the positive, represents the masculine, firm, strong, light, rising and heaven. In the broadest sense, it can be applied to everything in the cosmos: man and nature, the individual and the community, life and death, existence and nonexistence, form and void, and so on. Not to be confused with the idea of opposition or conflict, the yin and the yang
are governed by their mutual necessity and interdependency. The interface where these yin-yang opposites join to become a unity is a visual representation of the Tao. The Tao both separates and joins the polarities of yin and yang 3 and implies at once a unity and a differentiation.
It is that whereby the yin-yang is at once
a whole and a coupling of opposites. Where Watts argues that there is no possibility of
one side dominating the other (52), in The Evolution of Future Consciousness, Futurist
writer Tom Lombardo argues that the Tao is rather an oscillation of these complimentary
forces and that it is the alternating dominance of yin and yang that produces the cyclic
rhythm of time (177). Similarly, in Principles of Chinese Painting, George Rowley
explains that the yin-yang relation was supposed to set up a tension in the universe and
that is from this tension that the Tao arises (8).
Whichever interpretation one adopts, the Tao is a mutual interpenetration and
interdependence of everything happening in the universe. This is an organic and
relational view of the universe, like neither the mechanistic Newtonian clock nor the
dualistic Creator-created conception of the West. It allows for no supreme intelligence or
force outside of it. To discover or commune with the Tao, then, a church or other
designated place would be irrelevant; it is in nature, of which man is an integral part, that
the Tao may be apprehended.
Rowley argues that the relation between man and nature in China was
characterized by harmony and communion (20) and that it was precisely because China
lacked a belief in a personal god, which would preclude seeking reality in nature, that
they were able to conceive of a natural world which did not pit man against nature, but
which saw man as an integral part of the cosmos. Moreover, the two indigenous doctrines
of living, Taoism and Confucianism, while focusing respectively on the spiritual and
humanistic, both sought inner reality in a fusion of opposites. A yin-yang
complementarity itself, this dynamic union of opposites, of intuitive and resonant versus
the ordered and rational, determined the cultural climate in which Chinese painting would
flourish (Rowley 4).
The Chinese conceived of a world as an integrated whole, a synthetic unity of
opposites that, far from being antagonistic to one another, needed each other for
completeness. How this manifested itself in art, in particular in landscape painting of the
Sung period (CE 960-1279), was a move away from a focus on the parts to a more
integrated whole. In Chinese Landscape Paintings: Journeys of the Mind in Space,
Roann Barris links this conceptual shift to the development of the characteristic styles of
the period which, while paradoxically condemning verisimilitude, also achieved highly
naturalistic renderings. As Barris puts it,
Paintings in this direction worked toward . . .
the painting as poetry, the painting as an expressive art rather than painting as a
description of the external world. Portraying the absolute truth of nature meant not only
an accurate depiction of its physical details but a mirror into its absolute inner sense as
well. Thus, things from nature acquired new meaning because they were seen not as
inanimate objects lacking life but as animistic and partaking of the mystery of the Tao in
the same way as living entities. Indeed, the landscape became a visible symbol of an all
embracing universe (Rowley 7).
The influence of Taoism on landscape painting manifests itself, then, through the
theme of nature, but also in composition, design and execution. In each area the primary
concept of yin and yang leaves its stamp whether in the earlier paintings of the Northern
Sung or the later landscapes of the Southern Sung. Composition entailed a harmonious
balance of verticals and horizontals, usually mountains and water, (indeed the word for
landscape in Chinese means mountain-waters), and the combining and scattering of
pictorial elements. Qualities such as sparse and dense, light and thick, and concave and
convex opposed and balanced each other, and care was taken to balance forms in the
design so that, for example, if one bird was flying downward another should be flying
upward (Rowley 51). In the very execution of the painting, it was the marriage of the dry
brush with the wet paint that produced a final product resonant with the natural qualities
of both. These couplings illustrate relationships of mutual need and, while the pictorial
elements of these schools differ considerably, both are characterized by a view of nature
that reflects harmony and communion between man and the cosmos. In contrast to much
of Western art, these paintings celebrate the wonder and mystery of nature rather than
mans domination over it.
Figure 1 Buddhist Temple in the Mountains by Li Cheng
This majestic sense of nature fairly shouts in a representative painting of the
Northern Sung school (CE 960-1125), Buddhist Temple in the Mountains by Li Cheng.
Here the rugged terrain and the dense piling up of elements in the foreground suggest the
unfathomable spirit of nature. The vertical thrust of the mountains rising above the limits
of the painting hint at the infinity of the universe while the suggestion that the mountains
continue to unfold one after another outside the perceptual plane produces what Rowley
identifies as a sequential experience of time and movement. Oppositional but
harmoniously combined elements form a unified composition in which the low, dark hills
in the foreground find their complement in the sweeping wash of the mountains behind
them; the scattered and writhing trees to the right are balanced by the serene and angular
temple on the left; and the obstructive barrier of the solid forms in the foreground opens
up to the suggestion of space behind.. The painter here uses a technique similar to that of
a contemporary, Fan Kuan, who, as Barris notes, prevented the viewers entering the
painting too quickly by clustering smaller elements in the foreground. This has the
additional effect of separating the massive elements of the distant plane from the smaller,
multiple elements in the front.
Buddhist Temple in the Mountains is a good example of the tendency towards the
rational in the composition of this period with its rather rigid organization of space into
quarters and the regular distribution of elements in the painting. Here too, the space is
characterized by a distinct division of near and far and, similarly, a balance is achieved
between form and void. There is a suggestion of mist in the middle plane which,
contrasted to the stark verticals of the mountains behind, speaks of a corresponding
chasm of empty space below. Barris sees the mist in the middle distance as empty space
as well but suggests that it contains the possibility of transformation and is thus indicative
of the Taoist mind set. And the depiction of the temple illustrates Rowleys assertion that
In their choice of human habitations the Chinese tried to intimate mans experience of
nature rather than his domination of it (20). Thus unlike the views of estates, bridges or
grand gardens of Western art, the temple, a place for meditation on the wonder and
mystery of nature nestled in a remote and mysterious canyon, is a reflection of the Taoist
sense of communion with the natural world rather than his control over it.
In like manner the Southern Sung painters (after CE 1127) tried to recreate the
natural world as a universal system comparable to the cosmos, but they used opposite
means to achieve this (Rowley 7); gone are the multiple mountains and monumental
scale, and the heavy contrast between dark and light, form and void. Where the Northern
Sung paintings can be said to be expressionistic in style, the Southern Sung works are
decidedly impressionistic and characterized by a delicacy of lines and colors which
seem to dissolve (Barris). They reflect both the less rugged terrain of the South and the
tendency on the part of these painters to simplify. Now instead of suggesting the infinity
of what lies beyond perception by towering heights that extend beyond the borders of the
painting, these painters applied an abundance of watercolor mist to embody the notion of
the void (
). Instead of stark verticals, we find gentle horizontals and in place of a
heavy application of ink and the characteristic wrinkles suggesting the detail of the
mountain surfaces, we have the barest suggestion of natural forms. Where the Northern
Sung landscape is up front and in your face, the Southern Sung maintains a distance.
The Northern Sung may leave you feeling smothered and claustrophobic, but the
Southern Sung allows you to breathe again. It is light, ethereal, and invites an equally
meditative but less intimidating contemplation of nature.
Figure 2 10000 Miles of a Clear View by Hsia Kuei, early thirteenth century
All of these aspects are reflected in 10000 Miles of a Clear View by Hsia Kuei.
The edge of the plateau in the foreground with its rocks and delicate trees is sketched in
enough detail for the forms to be recognizable but the faint lines soon recede into the mist
suggested by the empty space, or as Rowley puts it, The known forms fade off into the
void of the unknown. Now the mystery of nature is suggested not by the piling up of
multiple elements but by the obliteration of form and the view is simplified and clarified
to the point where void and form achieve a near perfect balance. The horizontal
concentration of forms in the foreground is offset by the misty void in the middle ground
and by the merest suggestion of mountain peaks in the background. The delicate cluster
of peaks in the upper right corner is echoed in the wispy depiction of trees on the lower
left-hand side, while both the other corners are empty space. Here the empty space and
vast distance suggest a limitless universe where man is no more or less significant than
the rocks and trees. Unlike Li Chengs tranquil but highly visible temple, mans presence
is now indicated by the merest suggestion of a footbridge. And yet, the fact that majestic
mountain peaks are drawn in the same minimalist way reflects the view of the cosmos as
one that embraces all reality on equal ground.
This ability to express the presence of nature as a whole in which all objects,
including humans, are equal, was not the exclusive domain of the landscape painters but
one clearly visible in poetry as well. Just as landscape painting reflects the imprint of
Taoism in its depiction of a balanced and harmonious universe, one reflected in the
natural world, so poetry in China was a vehicle to express not only the concerns that are
common to men and women of whatever place and time, as Burton Watson points out in
the introduction to The Columbia Book of Chinese Poetry, but also impersonal, universal
concerns the beauty of nature, the eternal flux of the universe, and the transience of life.
And just as landscape painting reveals a perception of the underlying and contrasting
aspects of nature, so Chinese poetry embodies a yin-yang polarity on many levels,
beginning with the very structure of the language itself.
In The Art of Chinese Poetry, James J. Y. Liu presents an exhaustive discussion of
the poetic tradition in China, and takes as a starting point the concise and compact nature
of the Chinese language, which, with its ideographic script, monosyllabic characters, and
fixed tones creates, in a line of poetry, a highly complex organic development of sense
and sound (19). Grammatical aspects of the language, such as the lack of case, gender,
mood and verb tense, allow for both the concise and the ambiguous. The frequent
omission of subject and verb and their interchangeability in the order in which they
appear, and the fluidity of parts of speech in Chinese where a word, such as master can
be noun, verb, or adjective, contribute to this effect, as does the complete lack of
conjunctions and other particles. As Liu comments, Chinese words are mobile units
which act on and react with each other in constant flux (46). As such, the language itself
is a reflection of the Taoist world view, and contributes to the impersonal and universal
quality of the verse.
Along with the absence of what Liu calls the accidental trappings of Chinese,
there is a polarity at play in the nature of the language. At a basic level, this antithesis
appears in the words for abstract concepts such as size and length, translated as big-
small-ness and long-short-ness respectively. For Liu, this reveals a dualistic and
relativistic way of thinking (146) and plays an important part in the construction of
Chinese verse. In one of the most common forms called Shih or regulated verse, the four
middle lines of an eight-line poem form two antithetical couplets which, while
grammatically identical, contrast with each other in sense and sound. Not only does this
strengthen the structure of the poem, but it also reflects, again, the contrasting aspects of
nature. While it is difficult in translation to illustrate the auditory effects of Chinese
poetry, effects which include alliteration, repetition of words and onomatopoeia, the
antithesis Liu describes, the deep sensitivity to nature and time, and poetic elements such
as rime, imagery and symbolism are all evident in the two poems which follow by the
Tang dynasty poets, Li Po (CE 701-762) and Tu Fu (CE 712-770). These poems also
reflect major themes running through the long Chinese poetic tradition: sadness at parting
from a friend; nostalgia and longing; an attitude towards history which places all human
activity within the realm of the eternal cycles of time and nature; and sadness at the
transience of human life.
Li Po is generally regarded as the poet who, along with his contemporary Tu Fu,
raised poetry in the Shih form to its highest level of power and expressiveness (Watson
205). In the poem here, Seeing a Friend Off, the poet deals with the conventional theme
of parting in a way that downplays despair or bitterness and reflects an attitude not so
much of resignation as serene acceptance. He seems to be saying that, just as all things in
nature are governed by the eternal cycles of time, so man must enjoy the time that is his
and accept with grace the inevitable passing of lifes pleasures. From the adherence to the
eight-line traditional form of Shih with its antithetical pairing of couplets in the middle
lines, to the underlying unity of its simple but associated images, this poem reveals both
the influence of earlier poets and the grace and eloquence of treatment for which Li Po
is known (Watson 205).
Green hills sloping from the northern wall,
White water rounding the eastern city:
Once parted from this place
The lone weed tumbles ten thousand miles.
Drifting clouds a travelers thoughts;
Setting sun an old friends heart.
Wave hands and let us take leave now,
Hsiao-hsiao our hesitant horses neighing.
Here we have a perfect example of Lius antithesis at work with pairings of like
kind throughout: green hills and white water, sloping and rounding, Northern
wall and eastern city, parted and tumbles, drifting clouds and setting sun, and
a travelers thoughts and an old friends heart. The poem is a perfect balance of
complementary images and syntactical similarities. The middle lines, in particular, in
two antithetical couplets, juxtapose images from nature that suggest important events in
the poets life: the departure from his home, his wanderings, and his coming to rest at the
end of his journeys.
In his review of the important critics of Chinese poetry, Liu discusses the idea that
poetry is an exploration of worlds and of language. Worlds can be described as the
coupling of emotion and scene, as the critic Wang Kuo Wei asserted (CE1877-1907).
Liu interprets this to mean that world is both a reflection of the poets external
environment and the expression of his total consciousness (96). In Li Pos poem, we find
both of these elements, but the former is far outweighed by the latter. As Watson
suggests, Li Pos poetry has less to do with the actual scenes and experience of his life
than with his search for spiritual freedom and communion with nature (206). Thus,
while the northern wall and eastern city evoke the world of men, the dominant
imagery has to do with the sense of mans place in the universe as a whole. Like drifting
clouds and the setting sun, he is an integral part of the natural world. There is a sense
that mans spirit cannot be contained by the structures humans build; the green hills
slope from the northern walls and the white water rounds the eastern city, leading
the poet to wander into the limitless void of the universe. This is beautifully expressed in
the lines, Once parted from this place, the lone weed tumbles ten thousand miles.
Mans essence is not to be found in flesh and blood but in his thoughts and in his heart,
his mind and his emotions, the yin-yang of his spirit.
If Li Pos poem deals with a conventional theme in a highly expressive way, Tu
Fus By the Winding River ll exhibits yet a greater compression of language and
thought and achieves, through a similar use of antithesis and parallelisms, a poem that is
densely packed with meaning (Watson 218-219). Where Li Pos poem, on the surface,
deals with the theme of parting, Tu Fu packs his with ruminations on history, the nature
of universal laws and principles, and the eternal cycle of death and renewal. In a series of
antithetical pairings rich in symbolism, the poet achieves both an evocative description of
his physical scene and an expression of his inner emotions.
Everywhere petals are flying
And spring is fading. Ten thousand
Atoms of sorrow whirl away
In the wind. I will watch the last
Flowers as they fade, and ease
The pain in my heart with wine.
Two kingfishers mate and nest in
The ruined river pavilion.
Some unicorns, male and female,
Guard the great tomb in the park.
After the laws of their being,
All creatures pursue happiness.
Why have I let an official
Career swerve me from my goal?
In this poem, just as there is often a hint of mans presence in a Chinese landscape
painting, natural images are balanced against those of mans temporal world in a structure
that underscores the essential yin-yang relationships of happiness and sorrow, death and
birth, male and female, human concerns and the universal oneness
: petals are flying
while atoms of sorrow whirl away in the wind; flowers fade while the poet eases
his heart with wine; kingfishers mate and nest in / the ruined river pavilion. The
endeavors of man, as suggested by the pavilion and the tomb, are submerged in the
eternal cycle of time, and like all creatures, humans are governed by li, the natural order
and pattern found in nature: After the laws of their being, / all creatures pursue
happiness. When the poet asks in the final lines Why have I let an official / Career
swerve me from my goal? he is expressing his desire to be freed from the fetters of his
ego and be united with nature (Liu 99). In this, he reflects not only the anti-
individualism of Taoist thought but also the desire to leave behind the conflicting affairs
of men and return to the infinite flux of the Tao.
If Tu Fus tone seems more earnest than Li Pos, he achieves, along with his
friend, the ideal of Chinese poetry as Liu sees it. In each case, the spirit of life is
embodied and distilled through an individual sensibility which stamps its personal tone
on the work (84). And in each case, both the external world, as reflected through the
poets mind, and the internal realm of feeling are revealed in a way that not only
expresses the poets personality, but which conveys a vision of reality that speaks deeply
to readers across time, distance and cultural barriers.
If poetry can speak across such divides despite the problems of translation, music
is perhaps an even better medium by which to express the essence of a sensibility as
highly tuned to both nature and human emotion as that of ancient China. And yet, as with
poetry, Asian music differs from Western music to such a degree that, while a melody is
discernable, a piece as a whole can sound out of tune or even discordant to a Western
listener. And where a selection of Western classical music, such as Bachs Brandenburg
Concerto no. 6, for example, has distinct parts with clear breaks between them, Chinese
music seems to carry a barely sustained melody through to the end with little or no
segmentation into parts.
Writing of his Western-influenced compact disc of variations on traditional
Chinese music, Echoes of China, composer Hans-Andre Stamm attributes some of the
differences between these two traditions to the underlying world views out of which they
sprang. As in painting, Western music arose out of a Christian world view with its
emphasis on the worth of the individual, its belief in a God outside of and superior to the
universe, and, for Stamm, its aggressive longing for superiority and authority. Stamm
also sees Western music as sublimating the gentle, soft, female element in favor of the
strong and assertive qualities associated with males. In contrast, Chinese music, which
can be traced as far back as the third millennium BCE (Columbia Encyclopedia), shows
the strong influence of Taoism, which not only is frequently associated with maternal,
rather than paternal images, as Watts points out (41), but also carries with it a message of
a harmonious cosmic order that encompasses the opposing elements of nature in a
These two very different philosophical stances prompted the development of
distinct musical theories and resulted in differences along all lines of comparison scale,
rhythm, melody, harmony, tonality, musical motifs and the intervals of silence and sound.
In a general vein and to synthesize, if we take the Brandenburg Concerto no. 6 as a
representative piece of music from the West and compare it to ancient music of China
played on the chin, or seven-stringed zither, a primary difference seems to revolve
around the concepts of motion and direction. This may derive from the way the West and
the East view time as a linear progression with beginning and end in the former case,
and as a circular system in the latter.
The Baroque piece displays just such a linear quality with its clear distinctions; it
starts off with a rousing allegro followed by an adagio and finishing off with another
allegro. Indeed, the word for these distinctions or breaks is called movement, and the
overall feeling of the piece is one of swift and exhilarating runs, or ascents, punctuated by
a slow and contemplative rest in the middle. Compounding the sense of motion is the
repetition and variation on the melodic line created by the interplay of the four violins
and one harpsichord, (or in The Academy of Ancient Music recording, a viola, viola de
gamba, violoncello, and violone). The melody is echoed by variations running behind,
above, around, and under it, and the complex harmonies which ensue arouse strong and
conflicting emotions in the listener.
This music evokes feelings of exhilaration,
excitement, and joy, as well as melancholy. It aspires to the heaven that Bach believed in
and transports one to a higher plane of experience. It is removed from the majestic natural
world in ways that a Romantic symphony, for example is not.
In contrast, music played on the chin, like Asian music in general, is not about
motion but about symmetry and rest (Course Guide). Pauses achieve as much
significance as the sounded notes, and the sounds produced by the plucking of a single
string are balanced by those resulting from strumming all five strings together. (Though
the chin is a seven-stringed instrument, two strings are not plucked directly but resonate
from the vibrations of the nearby strings).While there is a twanging and, to the Western
ear, an often out-of-tune effect, the resulting music is also reminiscent of the harp. In the
same way the harp is associated with an otherworldly, celestial sound, this music
achieves a tranquil and meditative effect in keeping with its Taoist theme of harmony and
balance. And yet, it speaks, too, of the rhythms and patterns found in nature and, like
these, suggests a progression of sound that ebbs and flows rather than move from a
beginning to a climax and to a finale.
Where melody and harmony predominate in Western music, here the single tone
is of greater significance than the melody and, as the tone is an important quality of the
material from which it is made, Chinese music remains inseparably bound to the
philosophy of China (Columbia Encyclopedia). As a main current of thought, Taoism,
with its focus on the integration of al things in nature, is thus manifested in chin music
through the interaction of silk string and wooden body, set into play by human touch.
Each element is an essential part of nature, and music, like painting and poetry, can be
seen to represent a unified cosmos in which the complementary elements of sound and
silence, of flow and rest, combine to form the music. This is carried through to a
supremely sensitive level in the hands of a skilled player; in Ancient and Oriental Music,
edited by Egon Wellesz, the author explains that a vibrato is prolonged long after the
audible sound has ceased and that the unplucked string, set into motion by a sudden
glissando, produces a sound scarcely audible even to the performer. This reflects, as in
the other arts of China, a concern for the essence of things, not just the external
manifestations, in this case the audible sound that results. Heard or not, the orderly
generation of sounds . . . was equated with other types of order in the universe; with the
four directions, with the categories of substance, with the orderly sequence of the
seasons. What mattered was not simply the music, but the harmonious correspondence
between their system of sounds and the order of the universe.
This preoccupation with harmony, order, and universal balance runs through all of
the Chinese arts discussed here, as does a highly developed sensitivity to nature. While
the West may have its paeans to the majesty of the natural world Wordsworth,
Beethoven, and Rousseau to name just a few, what makes Chinese art so compelling to
those who would explore it is the subtlety with which mans relation to the natural order
of things is expressed. Whether in the yin-yang symmetries of its poetic tradition, the
deeply contemplative nature scenes of the Sung landscape schools, or the traditional chin
compositions which evoke the serene order of flowing water and wind in the pines, the
difference here is the indelible stamp of the Taoist tradition in China. One can never
approach the arts in quite the same way after experiencing it.
Barris, Roann. Chinese Landscape Paintings: Journeys of the Mind in Space. China:
Journeys into Space and Time Course home page, n.d. Non-western Fine Arts, U
of Illinois. 3 May 2006 < http://www.ux1.eiu.edu/~cfrb/chineselandscape.htm>
“Chinese Music.” The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004. Questia. 4 June 2006
Cleary, Thomas, trans. The Taoist Classics. Boston: Shambhala, 2003. p 211-221.
Li Po. By the Winding River ll. Trans. Kenneth Rexroth in 100 Poems from the
New York: New Directions, n.d.
Liu, James J. Y. The Art of Chinese Poetry. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1962.
Rowley, George. Principles of Chinese Painting. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1972.
Tu Fu. Seeing a Friend Off. Trans. Burton Watson in The Columbia Book of Chinese
Poetry. New York: Columbia UP, 1984.
Watson, Burton, trans. Ed. The Columbia Book of Chinese Poetry. New York: Columbia
Watts, Alan. Tao: The Watercourse Way. New York: Pantheon, 1975.
Wellesz, Egon, ed. Ancient and Oriental Music. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1957.
Questia. 4 June 2006 < http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=94394145>.
Musical Works Cited
Bach, J. S. Brandenburg Concertos. The Academy of Ancient Music. Cond. Christopher
Hogwood. Decca Records, 1997.
Exotic Music of Ancient China. Audiocassette. Lyrichord disc, n.d.
Stamm, Hans-Andre. Echoes of China. Meistersinger Musik, n.d.
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